Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) is an emission standard which is instituted by the Government of India and the main motive behind BS 4 is to regulate the output of air pollutants from compression ignition engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including the motor vehicles. But, what is the full form of BS 4?
BS 4 full form stands for Bharat Stage 4, Also BS 4 full form in Hindi is “भारत स्टेज 4”.Bharat Stage 4 (BS4) is an emission standard, i.e. used by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from compression ignition engines and from other equipment or parts. The criteria and the implementations of that are set by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
What is the history of BS 4?
The first emission norms were introduced in India in the year 1991 for petroleum distillate, and in the year 1992 for diesel vehicles.
These were followed by making the Catalytic converter mandatory for petrol vehicles and the introduction of unleaded petrol in the market.
Bharat Stage 4 (BS4) standards were based on European Regulations, which was first introduced in the year 2000. Progressively stringent norms have been rolled out since then. But, all new vehicles that are were manufactured after that implementation of the norms they have to be compliant with the regulations.
Since October 2010, Bharat Stage 3 (BS3) norms have been caused by necessarily/ compulsory across the country. In 13 major cities, Bharat Stage 4 (BS4) emission has been in place since April 2010, and it has been mandatory for the entire country since April 2017.
In 2016, the Indian Government announced that the country would skip the Bharat Stage 5 (BS5) and adopt the Bharat Stage 6 (BS6) norms by the year 2020. In its recent judgement, the Supreme Court has banned the sale and registration of the motor vehicles which were conforming to the emission of Bharat Stage 4 (BS4) in the entire country from April 1, 2020.
What are the CO2 emission standards?
If we talk about India’s auto sector, then the auto sector of India accounts for about 18% of the total CO2 emissions in the country.
Relatively, the emission of CO2 from the transport has risen rapidly in recent years, but as the EU, currently, there are no standards for CO2 discharge for pollution from vehicles.
What is the significant difference between the BS4 and BS6?
The significant difference between the BS4-grade fuels and the BS6-grade fuels is in terms of the Sulphur and Nitrogen Oxide content.
The Sulphur traces in the BS6 are five times lower/lesser (10 PPM) as compared to the sulphur traces in BS4 fuel which was (50 PPM).
There are other differences in BS4 and BS6, which are as follows: –
- The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are being introduced with the roll-out of the Bharat Stage 6 (BS6) these were not the part of the Bharat Stage 4 (BS4). The Real Driving Emission (RDE) will be introduced first time in India with the implementation of Bharat Stage 6 (BS6) emission norms. The RDE is used to measure the vehicle’s emission in the Real-Time conditions against the laboratory conditions.
- The Onboard Diagnostics (OD) will be introduced with the implementation of Bharat Stage 6 (BS6) emission, which will be mandatory for all the vehicles. It was not there at the time of Bharat Stage 4 (BS4).
What is the Overview of the Emission Norms in India?
- 1991- Mass emission norms were introduced for petrol vehicles.
- 1992- Mass emission norms were introduced for diesel vehicles.
- 1996- Revision for mass emission for petrol and diesel vehicles.
- 1998- Cold start norms were introduced.
- 2000- Modified IDC, i.e. Indian Driving Cycle and Bharat Stage 2 for Delhi were introduced.
- 2001- Bharat Stage 2 norms were introduced for all the metros, CNG and LPG vehicles.
- 2003- Bharat Stage 2 norms were introduced for 13 major cities.
- 2005- From April 1, Bharat Stage 4 (BS4) was introduced for 13 major cities.
- 2010- Bharat Stage 4 emission norms were introduced for 2-wheelers, 3-wheelers and 4-wheelers for the entire country, whereas BS4 for 13 major cities was for only 4-wheelers as well as BS4 also have norms on OBD.
- 2017- Bharat Stage 4 norms were introduced for all vehicles.
- 2018- Bharat Stage 6 fuel norms were introduced in Delhi on April 1, 2018, instead of 2020.
- 2020- Bharat Stage 6 fuel norms were introduced on April 1, 2020, nationwide switching India to World’s cleanest diesel and petrol.
Q&A on BS IV
Q1. What is the full form of BS 4?
Ans:- BS 4 Full Form is Bharat Stage 4, Also BS 4 full form in Hindi is “भारत स्टेज 4”.
Hope, now you are clear with the topic Bharat Stage 4, i.e. BS4 and many more information related to BS4 and BS6.
Written By-Arpit Sen.